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National Definitions


Sistema informatico che gestisce e controlla entità fisiche in settori quali le infrastrutture civili, il settore aerospaziale, dei transporti, sanitario, energico e dei processi produttivi. [1]

A cyber-physical system (CPS) is defined as ICT and computer systems supporting, managing and supervising physical assets. [2]

United Kingdom (UK)

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are systems with integrated computational and physical components; ‘smart’ systems. [3]

Cyber-physical system (CPS): A system designed as an entity, or set of entities, with a specific purpose, or to meet a capability objective. A CPS should include a computational aspect (cyber) and a physical aspect working together to accomplish a task or function. The cyber aspect has a controlling or influencing role over the physical parts of the system, for example, the automated steering of a ship to maintain a planned course. [4]

United States

Cyber-Physical Systems or "smart" systems are co-engineered interacting networks of physical and computational components. [5]
These systems will provide the foundation of our critical infrastructure, form the basis of emerging and future smart services, and improve our quality of life in many areas.

Academic Definitions

Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are an emerging new category of interconnected real-time complex but controllable technical systems which incorporate both discrete symbolic computation and continuous physical processes in a sophisticated manner. [6]
Conceptually CPS deeply and widely embeds cyber in a mix of humans, hardware, infrastructure, and natural elements to sense, control, and actuate physical world behavior. The innovation of the technologies in the cyber part (control systems) plays a key role to bring intelligent and reliable behaviours of the whole system.

A cyber-physical system (CPS) is a system of collaborating computational elements controlling physical entities. [7]

A cyber-physical system (CPS) is an integration of computation with physical processes. [8]

According to this source the term "cyber-physical systems" emerged around 2006, when it was coined by Helen Gill at the National Science Foundation in the United States.

Discussion Topic

See also



  1. Presidency of the Council of Ministers, National strategic framework for cyberspace security, Rome, Italy - Italian version (December 2013)
  2. Presidency of the Council of Ministers, National strategic framework for cyberspace security, Rome, Italy - English version (December 2013)
  3. National Cyber Security Strategy 2016, HM Government
  4. Code of Practice Cyber Security for Ships, DSTL (2017)
  5. NIST CPS webpage
  6. Poovendran, R., Sampigethaya, K., Gupta, S.K.S., et al. Special Issue on Cyber–Physical Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE 100, 1 (2012), 6-12.
  7. from Wikipedia
  8. CPS