A CPS should include a computational aspect (cyber) and a physical aspect working together to accomplish a task or function. The cyber aspect has a controlling or influencing role over the physical parts of the system, for example, the automated steering of a ship to maintain a planned course.
critical infrastructure, form the basis of emerging and future smart services, and improve our quality of life in many areas.
Academic DefinitionsConceptually CPS deeply and widely embeds cyber in a mix of humans, hardware, infrastructure, and natural elements to sense, control, and actuate physical world behavior. The innovation of the technologies in the cyber part (control systems) plays a key role to bring intelligent and reliable behaviours of the whole system.
According to this source the term "cyber-physical systems" emerged around 2006, when it was coined by Helen Gill at the National Science Foundation in the United States.
- Presidency of the Council of Ministers, National strategic framework for cyberspace security, Rome, Italy - Italian version (December 2013)
- Presidency of the Council of Ministers, National strategic framework for cyberspace security, Rome, Italy - English version (December 2013)
- Singapore Cyber Landscape 2017
- National Cyber Security Strategy 2016, HM Government
- Code of Practice Cyber Security for Ships, DSTL (2017)
- NIST CPS webpage
- Poovendran, R., Sampigethaya, K., Gupta, S.K.S., et al. Special Issue on Cyber–Physical Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE 100, 1 (2012), 6-12.
- from Wikipedia