Cybercrime

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Definitions

European/EU Definitions

Cybercrime consists of criminal acts that are committed online by using electronic communications networks and information systems. It is a borderless problem that can be classified in three broad definitions:
1. Crimes specific to the Internet, such as attacks against information systems or phishing (e.g. fake bank websites to solicit passwords enabling access to victims' bank accounts).
2. Online fraud and forgery. Large-scale fraud can be committed online through instruments such as identity theft, phishing, spam and malicious code.
3. Illegal online content, including child sexual abuse material, incitement to racial hatred, incitement to terrorist acts and glorification of violence, terrorism, racism and xenophobia. [1]


National Definitions

Albania

Krim kibernetik – konsiderohet ndërhyrje e paautorizuar drejt dhe/ose përmes përdorimit të TIK, penalizimi për të cilin rregullohet në Kodin Penal të Republikës së Shqipërisë. [2]

Australia

Cybercrime refers to crimes directed at computers, such as illegally modifying electronic data or seeking a ransom to unlock a computer affected by malicious software. [3]
It also includes crimes where computers facilitate an existing offence, such as online fraud or online child sex offences.

Austria

Cyber crime is defined as computer offences under the Commonwealth Criminal Code Act 1995 (Part 10.7) which involve the unauthorised access to, modification or impairment of electronic communications. [4]

Cyberkriminalität umfasst rechtswidrige Angriffe aus dem Cyber Raum auf oder mittels IKTSystemen, die strafrechtlich oder verwaltungsstrafrechtlich normiert sind und umfasst somit jede Form von Straftaten, die mit Hilfe von Informationstechnologien und Kommunikationsnetzen begangen werden. Auch die Internetkriminalität zählt dazu. [5]


Bulgaria

Кибер престъпление – престъпни цели (действия), които се определят в качеството на такива в националното и/или международното законодателство насочени към и/или използващи кибер пространството. [6]


Canada

Cybercrime: A crime committed with the aid of, or directly involving, a data processing system or computer network. The computer or its data may be the target of the crime or the computer may be the tool with which the crime is committed. [7]

Cybercrime: Délit commis à l'aide d'un système informatique ou d'un réseau d'ordinateurs ou les impliquant directement. L'ordinateur ou ses données peuvent être la cible du délit ou l'ordinateur peut être l'instrument de perpétration du délit. [8]


Cybercrime is a crime committed with the aid of, or directly involving, a data processing system or computer network (ISO/IEC 2382-8: 1998). Cybercrime can include the destruction, disclosure or modification of data, the theft of physical or intellectual property, computer services, passwords or credit card numbers, a denial of service attack or fraud. [9]

Délit commis à l’aide d’un système informatique ou d’un réseau d’ordinateurs ou les impliquant directement (ISO/CEI 2382-8:1998). Un crime cybernétique peut comprendre la destruction, la divulgation ou la modification de données, le vol de biens physiques, de propriété intellectuelle, de services d’ordinateur, de mots de passe ou de numéros de cartes de crédit, le déclenchement d’une attaque entraînant un refus de service ou la fraude. [9]

Chile

Cibercrimen: son los actos delictuales donde el ciberespacio es el objeto del delito o su principal herramienta para cometer ilícitos contra individuos, organizaciones, empresas o gobiernos. [10]


Colombia

Ciberdelincuencia: Acciones ilícitas que son cometidas mediante la utilización de un bien o servicio informático. (Ministerio de Defensa de Colombia). [11]

Cibercrímen (delito cibernético): conjunto de actividades ilegales asociadas con el uso de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones, como fin o como medio. [12]


Costa Rica

Ciberdelincuencia: Conjunto de personas y organizaciones que cometen delitos mediante la Internet o alguna red de computadoras. [13]


France

Cybercriminalité: Actes contrevenants aux traités internationaux ou aux lois nationales, utilisant les réseaux ou les systèmes d’information comme moyens de réalisation d’un délit ou d’un crime, ou les ayant pour cible. [14]

Acts contravening international treaties and national laws, targeting networks or information systems, or using them to commit an offence or crime. [15]


Guatemala

Cibercrimen: Es toda aquella actividad que involucra el uso de tecnologías de información y comunicaciones con la finalidad de cometer actos ilegales en contra de personas, instituciones o Estados. Fuente: OF 000600 CB/2520 16016355 Ministerio de la Defensa [16]

Indonesia

Illegal contents/cyber crime: kejahatan ini dilakukan dengan memasukkan data atau informasi ke internet tentang sesuatu yangtidak benar, tidak etis dan dapat dianggap melanggar hukum atau mengganggu ketertiban umum. [17]


Italy

CRIMINALITA` INFORMATICA: Reato introdotto con la Legge n.547/1993, attraverso l`estensione della nozione di violenza sulle cose (art. 392 c.p.) all`alterazione, modifica o cancellazione di un programma informatico. [18]


Jamaica

Cybercrime – is a crime in which a computer is the object of the crime or is used as a tool to commit an offence. [19]


Jordan

Cyber-dependent crime (crimes that can only be committed through the use of ICT devices, where the devices are both the tool for committing the crime and the target of the crime); or cyber–enabled crime (crimes that may be committed without ICT devices, like financial fraud, but are changed significantly by use of ICT in terms of scale and reach). [20]


Kuwait

اجلرمية االلكرتونية: هي �صلوك غري م�صروع، غري أخالقي أو غري مرخ�ص به، وهي امتداد للن�صاط الإجرامي العادي وترتكب عرب الف�صاء االلكرتوين با�صتخدام الو�صائل غري التقليدية ب�صورة مكملة للجرمية العادية، وللجرمية االلكرتونية [21]

Electronic crime: illegal, unethical or unauthorized conduct, and is an extension of the normal criminal activity that conducted via cyberspace using non-traditional methods to complement the ordinary crime. [22]

Cybercrime has several types including:
  1. Cybercrime that targets individuals, aimed to obtain illegally on the electronic identity of individuals, such as email and password, or impersonation electronically, or drag photos and important files from victim’s device to threaten him and request orders.
  2. Cybercrime that targets government and private agencies, destroying important files, data or proprietary software, by sending malware to the user’s computer and in a variety of ways like electronic mails.
  3. Cybercrime that targets Governments, the pirate attacks government official websites and network systems aiming to damage the website, the infrastructure of the site, the network system or destroy all aforementioned. Or it may target military sites for some States to steal data relating to State security.
  4. Other crimes such as fraud, theft, extortion, theft of electronic information and use them illegally, cursing and swearing, slander, and cyber terrorism.



Macedonia

Сајбер криминал – опфаќа противправни активности кои се вршат во сајбер просторот, односно криминал кој може да се изврши само преку користење на ИКТ уреди и системи, каде што уредите и системите или се користат како средства за извршување на криминал, или се примарни цели на криминалните активности; или криминал овозможен од сајбер просторот, како што се традиционалните криминални активности и материјали за злоупотреба на деца, што се зголемува со сè поголемото користење на компјутерите, компјутерските мрежи или други форми на ИКТ. [23] [24]

Mexico

Ciberdelincuencia: ​Actividades que llevan a cabo individuo(s) realiza(n) que utilizan como​ ​medio​ ​o​ ​como​ ​fin​ ​a​ ​las​ ​Tecnologías​ ​de​ ​la​ ​información​ ​y​ ​comunicación. [25]

Delitos cibernéticos o Ciberdelitos. ​Acciones delictivas que utilizan como medio o como fin a las tecnologías de la información y comunicación y que se encuentran tipificados​ ​en​ ​algún​ ​código​ ​penal​ ​u​ ​otro​ ​ordenamiento​ ​nacional. [25]


Morocco

Cybercriminalité: Toutes les infractions pénales susceptibles de se commettre sur ou au moyen d’un système informatique généralement connecté à un réseau. [26]

Cyberattacks: Malicious acts against a computer device, usually via a telecommunications network.


Netherlands

Cybercrime: vorm van criminaliteit gericht op ict of de informatie die een ict-systeem verwerkt. [27]
Er zijn verschillende soorten cybercrime: (1) in enge zin, een vorm van criminaliteit met ict als doelwit (high tech crime); (2) een vorm van criminaliteit waarbij voor de uitvoering het gebruik van ict van overwegende betekenis is (cybercriminaliteit); (3) in brede zin, iedere vorm van (traditionele) criminaliteit waarbij gebruik wordt gemaakt van ict (gedigitaliseerde criminaliteit).

New Zealand

Cybercrime has two elements:
(1) A criminal act that can only be committed through the use of ICT or the Internet and where the computer or network is the target of the offence. This is regardless of what the criminal goal is – whether political or financial gain, espionage or any other reason. Examples of cybercrime include producing malicious software, network intrusions, denial of service attacks and phishing.
(2) Cyber-enabled crime is any criminal act that could be committed without ICT or the Internet, but is assisted, facilitated or escalated in scale by the use of technology. This includes a vast amount of serious and organised crime, such as cyber-enabled fraud or the distribution of child exploitation material. [28]



Cyber crime (or computer crime) is any crime where information and communications technology is: (1) used as a tool in the commission of an offence, (2) the target of an offence, (3) a storage device in the commission of an offence. [29]



Oman

Cyber Crimes: The crimes which are referred to in this law. [30] [31]


Philippines

Cybercrime - Criminal activities carried out through the use of information and communication networks, especially the internet. [32]


Portugal

[Definição] Crime Informático – Atos criminosos cometidos cometidos on-line utilizando redes de comunicação eletrónicas e sistemas de informação. [33]


Qatar

Cyber Crime: Misconduct or crime committed using technology. [34]

الجريمة الاإلك�ت ونية - ي القانــو�ني للأنظمــة � ســوء الســلوك أو الجريمــة المرتكبــة باســتخدام تكنولوجيــا المعلومــات والاتصــالات. عــلى ســبيل المثــال، الوصــول غــ أو المعلومــات أو الاحتيــال أو سرقــة الهويــة أو الهجمــات المتعلقــة بالمحتــوى. [35]
Examples of cyber crime may include illegal access to systems or information, fraud, identity theft, or content-related offenses such as spam.

Romania

Criminalitatea informatică - totalitatea faptelor prevăzute de legea penală sau de alte legi speciale care prezintă pericol social şi sunt săvârşite cu vinovăţie, prin intermediul ori asupra infrastructurilor cibernetice. [36]


Senegal

Cybercriminalité: les actes contrevenants aux traités internationaux ou aux lois nationales, utilisant les réseaux ou les systèmes d’information comme moyens de réalisation d’un délit ou d’un crime, ou les ayant pour cible. [37]


Singapore

Cybercrime: Refers to (a) offences where a computer system is the target of a criminal act; and (b) offences where traditional crimes are committed via the means of a computer system. The first category refers to offences under the Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act (CMCA) and the second category refers to traditional crimes performed online such as online cheating, and cyber extortion. See “National Cybercrime Action Plan,” Ministry of Home Affairs, 20 July 2016. [38]


South Africa

Cybercrime: Illegal acts committed through the use of Information and Communication Technology (National Cybersecurity Policy Framework South Africa). [39]



Ukraine

кіберзлочин (комп’ютерний злочин) - суспільно небезпечне винне діяння у кіберпросторі та/або з його використанням, відповідальність за яке передбачена законом України про кримінальну відповідальність та/або яке визнано злочином міжнародними договорами України.

{machine translation} cybercrime (computer crime) - a socially dangerous offense in cyberspace and / or its use, liability for which is provided for by the law of Ukraine on criminal liability and / or recognized as a crime by international treaties of Ukraine. [40]


United Kingdom (UK)

Cyber crime – cyber-dependent crime (crimes that can only be committed through the use of ICT devices, where the devices are both the tool for committing the crime and the target of the crime); or cyber–enabled crime (crimes that may be committed without ICT devices, like financial fraud, but are changed significantly by use of ICT in terms of scale and reach). [41]


Zimbabwe

Cybercrime means any offence under this [Cybercrime and Cybersecurity bill] Act [42]


Regional Definitions

Isle of Man
Cybercrime – refers to a vast array of illegal activities that are implemented via IT systems, including mobile devices. A crime committed with the aid of, or directly involving, a data processing system or computer network. The computer or its data may be the target of the crime or the computer may be the tool with which the crime is committed. [43]

Other Definitions

East-West Institute (Russia-US)

Киберпреступление: использование киберпространства, в преступных целях, которые определяются в качестве таковых национальным или международным законодательством

Cyber!Crime is the use of cyberspace for criminal purposes as defined by national or internationallaw. [44]

See also

Notes

  1. webpage MIGRATION AND HOME AFFAIRS CYBERCRIME
  2. Dokumenti i Politikave për Sigurinë Kibernetike 2015 - 2017 2015 - 2017 (2015)
  3. Australia's International Cyber Engagement Strategy (2017)
  4. Austrian Cyber Security Strategy, Federal Chancellery of the Republic of Austria, Vienna (2013)
  5. Österreichische Strategie für Cyber Sicherheit (2013)
  6. „Кибер устойчива България 2020” - Republic of Bulgaria: national cyber security strategy "Cyber Resilient Bulgaria 2020" (2016)
  7. Canada’s Cyber Security Strategy: Canada's Vision for Security and prosperity in the digital age (2018)
  8. Stratégie nationale de cybersécurité: Vision du canada pour la sécurité et la prospérité dans l'ère numérique (2018)
  9. 9.0 9.1 Vocabulaire de la gestion des urgencies / Emergency Management Vocabulary
  10. BASES PARA UNA POLÍTICA NACIONAL DE CIBERSEGURIDAD, MARZO DE 2015, Chile
  11. Lineamientos de política para ciberseguridad y ciberdefensa (2011)
  12. Conpes 3854 POLÍTICA NACIONAL DE SEGURIDAD DIGITAL (2016)
  13. Estrategia Nacional de Ciberseguridad de Costa Rica (2017)
  14. Défense et sécurité des systèmes d’information Stratégie de la France]
  15. Information systems defence and security - France’s strategy
  16. La Estrategia Nacional de Seguridad Cibernética (June 2018)
  17. Glosarium Peraturan
  18. Glosario
  19. Jamaica's National Cyber Security Strategy
  20. National Cyber Security Strategy (2018-2023)
  21. الاستراتيجية الوطنية للأمن السيبراني لدولة الكويت (2017-2020)
  22. National Cyber Security Strategy 2017-2020
  23. НАЦИОНАЛНА СТРАТЕГИЈА ЗА САЈБЕР БЕЗБЕДНОСТ НА РЕПУБЛИКА МАКЕДОНИЈА 2018 -2022
  24. http://www.mioa.gov.mk/sites/default/files/pbl_files/documents/strategies/cyber_security_strategy_macedonia_2018-2022_-_eng.pdf National Cyber Security Strategy of the Republic of Macedonia (2018)]
  25. 25.0 25.1 Estragia Nacional de Ciberseguridad (November 2017)
  26. STRATEGIE NATIONALE EN MATIERE DE CYBERSECURITE, Morocco, 2011
  27. Cyber Security Beeld Nederland 2018
  28. New Zealand’s National Plan to Address Cybercrime (2015)
  29. [ https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/national-cyber-security-strategies/ncss-map/strategies/new-zealands-cyber-security-strategy/view/++widget++form.widgets.file/@@download/NZ_NCSS.pdf New Zealand’s Cyber Security Strategy (2011)]
  30. Oman Royal Decree No 12/2011 Issuing the Cyber Crime Law (English)
  31. Oman Royal Decree No 12/2011 Issuing the Cyber Crime Law (Arabic)
  32. DND GLOSSARY OF CYBER SECURITY TERMS (v.4)
  33. Glossário Centro National de Cibersegurança Portugal
  34. QATAR National Cyber Security Strategy (May 2014)
  35. الاستراتيجية الوطنية للأمن السيبراني QATAR NCSS - Arabic version (May 2014)
  36. Hotărârea nr. 271/2013 pentru aprobarea Strategiei de securitate cibernetică
  37. STRATÉGIE NATIONALE DE CYBERSÉCURITÉ DU SÉNÉGAL (SNC2022)
  38. [https://www.csa.gov.sg/~/media/csa/documents/publications/singaporecyberlandscape2017.pdf Singapore Cyber Landscape 2017]
  39. National Integrated ICT Policy White Paper South Africa
  40. ЗАКОН УКРАЇНИ - Про основні засади забезпечення кібербезпеки України / THE LAW OF UKRAINE: About the basic principles of providing cyber security of Ukraine 2163-19
  41. National Cyber Security Strategy 2016, HM Government
  42. Draft Cybercrime and Cybersecurity bill (2017)
  43. Isle of Man National Cyber Security Strategy (2018-2022)
  44. RUSSIA-­‐U.S. BILATERAL ON CYBERSECURITY: CRITICAL TERMINOLOGY FOUNDATIONS