Hazard

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Hazard | Gefährdung | Peligro | Vaara | Rischio potenziale | ハザード | Zagrożenie | Perigo | 危险

The definitions of the terms "Hazard" and "Threat" are very similar, so maybe the terms do not need to be distinguished. A usage example of the above terms is presented on the discussion section of the current entry.

Definitions

European Definitions

Council of Europe

Hazard is a dangerous event or circumstance that may or may not lead to an emergency or disaster. [1]


EU

An accidental or naturally occurring phenomenon with the potential to cause physical or psychological harm to humans including loss of life, damage or losses of property, and/or disruption to the environment or to structures (economic social, political) upon which a community's way of life depends. [2]
EU JRC
Hazard is the absence or lack of predictability. [3]
A situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment.

European Project Definitions

CIPRNet project

The CIPRNet project [4] uses the following definition:

Hazard is defined as the source of potential harm.


Other International Definitions

CARICOM

Hazard is a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.[5]

IPCC

Hazard is the potential occurrence of a natural or human-induced physical event that may cause loss of life, injury, or other health impacts, as well asdamage and loss to property, infrastructure, livelihoods, service provision, and environmental resources. [6]

UNISDR

Hazard is a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. [7]

The hazards of concern to disaster risk reduction as stated in footnote 3 of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA)[8] are “… hazards of natural origin and related environmental and technological hazards and risks.” Such hazards arise from a variety of geological, meteorological, hydrological, oceanic, biological, and technological sources, sometimes acting in combination. In technical settings, hazards are described quantitatively by the likely frequency of occurrence of different intensities for different areas, as determined from historical data or scientific analysis.

Aléa: Un phénomène dangereux, une substance, activité humaine ou condition pouvant causer des pertes de vies humaines, des blessures ou d’autres effets sur la santé, des dommages aux biens, des pertes de moyens de subsistance et des services, des perturbations socio-économiques, ou des dommages à l’environnement. [9]

Угроза: Опасное явление, вещество, деятельность человека или условия, которые могут повлечь гибель людей, увечья или другой вред здоровью, ущерб имуществу, потерю средств к существованию и услуг, социальные и экономические потрясения или вред окружающей среде. [10]

Amenaza: Un fenómeno, sustancia, actividad humana o condición peligrosa que pueden ocasionar la muerte, lesiones u otros impactos a la salud, al igual que daños a la propiedad, la pérdida de medios de sustento y de servicios, trastornos sociales y económicos, o daños ambientales. [11]

خطر وجمعها أخطار: ظاهرة أو مادة أو نشاط بشري أو ظروف خطيرة يمكن أن تؤدي إلى خسارة في الأرواح أو إصابات أو آثار صحية أخرى أو ضرر بالممتلكات أو خسارة في سبل المعيشة والخدمات أو خلل اقتصادى واجتماعى أو ضرر بيئى. [12]

Ancaman bahaya: Suatu fenomena, substans, aktivitas manusia atau kondisi berbahaya yang bisa menyebabkan hilangnya nyawa, cedera atau dampak-dampak kesehatan lain, kerusakan harta benda, hilangnya penghidupan dan layanan, gangguan sosial dan ekonomi, atau kerusakan lingkungan. [13]

Bahaya: Fenomena keadaan atau aktiviti manusia, bahan atau keadaan yang mampu menyebabkan kehilangan nyawa, kecederaan atau impak kesihatan lain, kerosakan harta benda, kehilangan pekerjaan dan perkhidmatan, gangguan ekonomi dan sosial, atau kerosakan alam sekitar. [14]


UNDHA

Hazard: a threatening event, or the probability of occurrence of a potentially damaging phenomenon within a given time period and area. [15]

Amenaza: Evento amenazante, o probabilidad de que ocurra un fenómeno potencialmente dañino dentro de un área y periodo de tiempo dado. [15]

Aléa: Événement menaçant ou probabilité d'ocurrence dans une région et au cours d'une période données d'un phénomène pouvant engendrer des dommages. [15]


WHO

Hazard is a possible threat of source of exposure to injury, harm or loss, e.g. conflict, natural phenomena. [16]


National Definitions

Australia

Hazard: A source of potential harm –including threats. [17]

Hazard is a source of potential harm or a situation with a potential to cause loss. [18]

Hazard is a potential or existing condition that may cause harm to people or damage to property or the environment. [18]

Hazard is an intrinsic capacity associated with an agent or process capable of causing harm. [18]

Hazard is the capacity of an agent to produce a particular type of adverse health or environmental effect. [19]


Canada

Hazard is a potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

Phénomène, événement physique ou activité humaine susceptible d’occasionner des pertes en vies humaines ou des blessures, des dommages aux biens, des perturbations sociales et économiques ou une degradation de l’environnement. [20] [21]

Chile

Peligro: En el estudio de riesgo y para esta guía; representa la probable manifestación de un fenómeno físico de origen natural, que se anticipa puede producir efectos adversos en las personas, la producción, la infraestructura, y los bienes y servicios. [22]
Se expresa como la probabilidad de que fenómeno se presente con una cierta intensidad, en un sitio especifico y dentro de un periodo de tiempo definido.

El Salvador

Amenaza (Hazard): Peligro latente que representa la posible manifestación dentro de un período de tiempo y en un territorio particular de un fenómeno de origen natural, socio-natural o antropogénico, que puede producir efectos adversos en las personas, la producción, la infraestructura, los bienes y servicios y el ambiente. [23]
Es un factor de riesgo externo de un elemento o grupo de elementos expuestos, que se expresa como la probabilidad de que un evento se presente con una cierta intensidad, en un sitio especifico y en dentro de un periodo de tiempo definido.

Finland

Vaara: hyvin todennäköisesti toteutuva tai jo toteutunut, parhaillaan vaikuttava haitallinen tapahtuma tai kehityskulku.

Hazard: very probably realising or already realised, presently influencing harmful event or development. -unofficial translation- [24]

Germany

(Concrete) effects of dangers/threats (natural phenomena, technical failure or human error, human misconduct) on Critical Infrastructures.[25]

Ireland

A hazard is any phenomenon with the potential to cause direct harm to members of the community, the environment or physical infrastructure, or being potentially damaging to the economic and social infrastructure. [26]

Italy

Pericolosità (Hazard): è la probabilità che un fenomeno di una determinata intensità si verifichi in un certo periodo di tempo, in una data area. [27]


Madagascar

Aléa: Situation potentielle ou existante qui peut affecter les populations, détériorer les biens ou l’environnement. L’amplitude du phénomène, sa probabilité, l’étendue et la gravité de son impact sont variables. [28]
Dans de nombreux cas, ces dégâts peuvent être anticipés et estimés

Nepal

Hazard: A dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. [29]


Peru

Amenaza (en inglés hazard): Manifestación física del cambio climático, incluida su variabilidad. [30]
Es un evento físico que puede representar un peligro para un sistema. Las amenazas incluyen los acontecimientos extremos temporarios como las sequías, las precipitaciones intensas (muchas veces asociadas a las inundaciones), los vendavales, las marejadas ciclónicas, el calor extremo y los cambios efectivamente irreversibles y a más largo plazo, como la desecación climática, el aumento del nivel del mar, el colapso de los sistemas ecológicos inducido por el clima, la pérdida de recursos hídricos (p. ej., los asociados con los glaciares), y los cambios en los niveles del agua subterránea. Otras amenazas “indirectas” del cambio climático pueden incluir los cambios en la distribución de pestes o enfermedades, y las reducciones de los recursos naturales (UNDP, 2009b).

Peligro: probabilidad de que un fenómeno físico, potencialmente dañino, de origen natural o inducido por la acción humana, se presente en un lugar específico con una cierta intensidad y en un periodo de tiempo y frecuencia definidos. [31]


Republic of Trinidad & Tobago

A dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. [32]

Saint Lucia

Hazard: Natural or man-made occurrences that pose a threat to people, property and the environment and are capable of causing a disaster. [33]
Hazards include earthquakes, fire, explosion, chemical spillage, flood, epidemics, hurricanes, landslide, storm surge, tidal wave or volcanic eruption.

Singapore

An event or physical condition that has the potential to cause harm or loss. [34]

Slovakia

Ohrozenie: Stav systému, ktorý vzniká a trvá v dôsledku existencie a uvedomenia si potenciálneho narušenia jeho rovnovážneho stavu. Je to aktivizované riziko, ktoré pôsobí proti záujmom subjektu, a konkrétnej situácie, ktoré bezprostredne znemožňujú naplnenie jeho záujmov. [35]


Switzerland

Zustand oder Vorgang, aus dem ein Schaden an einem Schutzgut entstehen kann. [36]

Etat ou processus dont peut découler un dommage à un bien digne de protection. [37]

Stato o avvenimento che può causare danni a un bene degno di protezione. [38]

Tanzania

Hazard: means an event with a potential for human injury, damage to property, damage to the environment, or some combination thereof. [39]


United Kingdom (UK)

Hazard is an accidental or naturally occurring (i.e. non-malicious) event or situation with the potential to cause death or physical or psychological harm, damage or losses to property, and/or disruption to the environment and/or to economic, social and political structures. [40]

Hazard is a situation or event which could cause harm. [41]
Note: A hazard does not necessarily cause harm.

United States

DHS
Hazard is a natural or manmade source or cause of harm or difficulty. [42]
DoD
Hazard: Any real or potential condition that can cause injury, illness, or death to personnel; damage to or loss of a system, equipment or property; or damage to the environment. [43]
NIMS
Something that is potentially dangerous or harmful, often the root cause of an unwanted outcome. [44]

Other Definitions

EM-DAT

Hazard is a threatening event, or probability of occurrence of a potentially damaging phenomenon within a given time period and area. [45]
Though often caused by nature, disasters can have human origins.

Ontario (Canada)

Hazard is a phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. [46]

These may include natural, technological or human-caused incidents or some combination of these.

Danger ou aléa: phénomène, substance, activité humaine ou condition pouvant causer des pertes de vies humaines, des blessures ou d’autres effets sur la santé, des dommages matériels, des pertes de moyens de subsistance et de services, des perturbations socio-économiques ou des dommages à l’environnement. [46]

Ces dangers peuvent être d’origine naturelle, technologique ou humaine, ou une combinaison de ces facteurs.

Standard Definition

IEC

Hazard is a potential source of harm. [47]

Phénomène dangereux: source potentielle de dommage. [47]

ISA

Hazard is a system state or set of conditions that, together with a particular set of related environmental conditions, will lead to an accident (loss). [48]

ISO 73:2009

Source of potential harm. [49]

ISO/PAS 22399:2007 / ISO 22300:2012(en)

Possible source of danger, or conditions physical or operational, that have a capacity to produce a particular type of adverse effects. [50]

Discussion

Since the terms Threat and Hazard present significant similarities, a usage example is presented below in order to link the two terms with rlated entries of CIPedia©.

Example: The weather report indicated that a flood threat/hazard would be emerging. Shortly thereafter, an extreme weather event occurred, bringing heavy rainfall. This led to a flooding incident along the Elbe. As impacts of the flood, a bridge collapsed because it was damaged by the flood, a dike broke and a flooded purification plant ceased operation. Indirect impacts were the interruption of road and rail traffic across the bridge, water transport blocked by the collapsed bridge and production of drinking water along the banks of the Elbe had to be stopped. The consequences of the flooding incidents were: Seven casualties, an economical damage of 67 Million Euros, and 50 square kilometres of polluted agricultural area. The flooding incident at the Elbe led to several cascading effects of CI. The collapsed bridge affected the road, rail, and water transport in the area. The pollution due to the purification plant led to an interruption of drinking water production.

The last sentence shows that cascading effects need not result from damage, but can be a shutdown as a mitigation action to prevent further harm (to people, to a Critical Infrastructure, to economy).

See also

Notes

  1. GLOSSAIRE MULTILINGUE DE LA GESTION DU RISQUE pour usagers francophones (2007)/European Centre of Technological Safety (TESEC) - TESEC-EUR-OPA 2001)
  2. European Commission's CBRN Glossary, 2012
  3. Definition of an assessment framework for projects of common interest in the field of smart grids, 2014
  4. http://www.ciprnet.eu/
  5. Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA) Regional Comprehensive Disaster Management Strategy and Results Framework 2014-2024
  6. IPCC
  7. 2009 UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction
  8. Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA)
  9. UNISDR glossary
  10. UNISDR glossary
  11. UNISDR glossary
  12. UNISDR glossary
  13. UNISDR glossary in Bahasa
  14. UNISDR glossary in Malay
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Internationally agreed glossary of basic terms related to Disaster Management
  16. WHO: Glossary of Humanitarian Terms
  17. Protective Security Policy Framework - Glossary Oct 2017
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Australian Emergency Management Glossary, Emergency Management Australia (1998)
  19. Health impacts of climate change: Adaptation strategies for western Australia (2008)
  20. An Emergency Management Framework for Canada (Second Edition)
  21. Vocabulaire de la gestion des urgencies/Emergency Management Emergency Management Vocabulary 281 (2012)
  22. GUÍA ANÁLISIS DE RIESGOS NATURALES PARA EL ORDENAMIENTO TERRITORIAL Subsecretaría de Desarrollo Regional y Administrativo (SUBDERE) Primera Edición, Junio 2011
  23. Glosario de Riesgo, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, El Salvador
  24. Vocabulary of Comprehensive Security. Helsinki (TSK 47) (2014)
  25. Protection of Critical Infrastructures – Baseline Protection Concept: Recommendation for Companies, BMI.
  26. A FRAMEWORK FOR MAJOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT (APPENDICES)
  27. Dipartimento della Protezione Civile Glossario
  28. Stratégie Nationale de Gestion des Risques et des Catastrophes – Madagascar (2014)
  29. Climate Change and Community Based Adaptation Planning Training Manual, Government of Nepal (2015)
  30. Portal de Cambio Climático
  31. El Centro Nacional de Estimación, Prevención y Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres - CENEPRED, Glosario de Términos, Peru
  32. Comprehensive Disaster Management Policy Framework for Trinidad and Tobago
  33. Government of Saint Lucia Disaster Management Policy Framework for Saint Lucia, 2004
  34. Singapore Standard SS 540: 2008 on Business Continuity
  35. BEZPEČNOSTNÁ RADA SLOVENSKEJ REPUBLIKY
  36. Glossar der Risikobegriffe, Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz BABS, 29.4.2013
  37. Glossaire des risques, Office fédéral de la protection de la population, 29.4.2013
  38. Glossario sui rischi, Ufficio federale della protezione della popolazione UFPP, 29.4.2013
  39. United Republic of Tanzania Guidelines for Management of Environmental Emergencies 2014
  40. Glossary - Revision to Emergency Preparedness, Cabinet Office (2012)
  41. The National Adaptation Programme: Making the country resilient to a changing climate, UK Government (2013)
  42. DHS Risk Lexicon 2010 Edition, September 2010
  43. [DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE STANDARD PRACTICE FOR SYSTEM SAFETY, MIL-STD-882D (2000)]
  44. National Incident Management Plan (core)
  45. EM-DAT disaster database glossary
  46. 46.0 46.1 Province of Ontario’s Emergency Management Glossary of Terms
  47. 47.0 47.1 IEC IEV 351-57-01
  48. ISA WG7; IEC 61784-3-18 (2011-04)
  49. ISO Guide 73:2009 Risk management -- Vocabulary
  50. ISO/PAS 22399:2007 Societal security - Guideline for incident preparedness and operational continuity management.