Resilience

From CIPedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Definitions

European Definitions

CLIMATE-ADAPT

The ability of a social or ecological system to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic structure and ways of functioning, the capacity for self-organisation, and the capacity to adapt to stress and change. [1]
There are different ways in which resilience can be framed; an inventory has been made by the Dutch Climate Changes Spatial Planning research programme.

IMPROVER project

The IMPROVER project [2] gives the following definition:

The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions. [3]

Note: The consortium adopted the UNISDR definition for the term (see below). Resilience is a complex construct of multiple resilience concepts. IMPROVER identifies three Resilience Domains relevant to CI, namely Organisational Resilience, Technological Resilience and Societal Resilience.

Other International Definitions

UNISDR

The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions. [4]

Resilience means the ability to “resile from” or “spring back from” a shock. The resilience of a community in respect to potential hazard events is determined by the degree to which the community has the necessary resources and is capable of organizing itself both prior to and during times of need.

Résilience: La capacité d’un système, une communauté ou une société exposée aux risques de résister, d’absorber, d’accueillir et de corriger les effets d’un danger, en temps opportune et de manière efficace, notamment par la préservation et la restauration de ses structures essentielles et de ses fonctions de base. [5]

Устойчивость: Способность системы, сообщества или общества, подверженного угрозам, противостоять последствиям угрозы, переносить их, приспосабливаться к ним и восстанавливаться своевременно и эффективно, в том числе посредством сохранения и восстановления своих основополагающих структур и функций. [6]

Resiliencia: La capacidad de un sistema, comunidad o sociedad expuestos a una amenaza para resistir, absorber, adaptarse y recuperarse de sus efectos de manera oportuna y eficaz, lo que incluye la preservación y la restauración de sus estructuras y funciones básicas. [7]

القدرة على المجابهة : قدرة المنظومة أو التجمع العمراني أوالمجتمع المعرض للخطر على المقاومة والامتصاص والاستيعاب والتعافي من آثار الخطر بالوقت المناسب والأسلوب الفعال، بما في ذلك من خلال الحفاظ على، وترميم منشآته الأساسية والخدمية. [8]

Ketangguhan/Daya lenting: Kemampuan sebuah sistem, komunitas atau masyarakat yang terpapar ancaman bahaya untuk bertahan terhadap, menyerap, berakomodasi dengan dan pulih dari dampakdampak sebuah ancaman bahaya dengan tepat pada waktunya dan secara efisien, termasuk melalui pemeliharaan dan pemulihan strukturstruktur dan fungsi-fungsi dasar yang paling mendasar. [9]

Ketahanan: Kebolehan sesebuah sistem, komuniti atau masyarakat yang terdedah kepada bahaya, untuk melawan, menyerap, menyesuaikan dan pulih daripada kesan bahaya dalam masa yang singkat, termasuk di sepanjang proses pemulihan dan pengekalan struktur fungsi asas sesebuah sistem, komuniti atau masyarakat itu. [10]

Katatagan: Ang kakayahan ng isang sistema, komunidad o lipunan na lantad sa mga peligro na labanan, tanggapin, balikatin at makabawi mula sa mga epekto ng peligro sa isang napapanahon at masinop na paraan kabilang na ang pangangalaga at pagpapanumbalik ng esensyal na mga batayang istruktura at tungkulin. [11]


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The capacity of a social-ecological system to cope with a hazardous event or disturbance, responding or reorganizing in ways that maintain its essential function, identity, and structure, while also maintaining the capacity for adaptation, learning, and transformation (Artic Council 2013) [12]

In the literature on climate change adaptation, resilience not only means the ability to “bounce back from” a shock, but also to "bounce forward" and to adapt to that shock should it occur the future. See also ecological resilience.

Industrial Internet Consortium

Resilience is the emergent property of a system that behaves in a manner to avoid, absorb and manage dynamic adversarial conditions while completing the assigned missions, and reconstitute the operational capabilities after causalities. [13]

National Definitions

Argentina

Resiliencia: Capacidad del ecosistema o ser vivo para recuperarse y/o adaptarse a las nuevas situaciones una vez que ha sido afectado por un evento adverso. [14]


Australia

Activity undertaken to determine the suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the subject matter to achieve established objectives. [15]


Bosnia and Herzegovina

Otpornost: Sposobnost sistema, zajednice ili društva koje je izloženo opasnosti da se odupre, apsorbuje, prilagodi i oporavi od posledica opasnosti na vrijeme i na efikasan način, uključujući očuvanje i obnovu svojih bitnih osnovnih struktura i funkcija. (UNISDR, 2009) [16]


Brazil

Resiliência: poder de recuperação ou capacidade de uma organização resistir aos efeitos de um desastre. [17]
Resilience: the ability to recovery or the capability to resist the effects of a disaster of an organisation.


Canada

Resilience is the capacity of a system, community or society to adapt to disturbances resulting from hazards by persevering, recuperating or changing to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning.

Capacité d’un système, d’une communauté ou d’une société à s’adapter aux perturbations découlant de dangers en persévérant, en se rétablissant ou en changeant en vue d’atteindre et de maintenir un niveau acceptable de fonctionnement. [18] [19]

Resilient capacity is built through a process of empowering citizens, responders, organizations, communities, governments, systems and society to share the responsibility to keep hazards from becoming disasters.

Cape Verde

Resiliência: Capacidade de um sistema, comunidade ou sociedade expostos a riscos de resistir, absorver, acomodar e se recuperar dos efeitos de um perigo, de forma atempada e eficiente, nomeadamente através da preservação e restauração das suas estruturas básicas e funções essenciais. [20]


Colombia

Resiliencia: es la capacidad de un material, mecanismo o sistema para recuperar su estado inicial cuando ha cesado la perturbación a la que había estado sometido. [21]


Czech Republic

Odolnost: Schopnost organizace, systému či sítě odolat hrozbám a čelit vlivu výpadků. [22]

Resilience is the capability of an organization, system or network to resist threats and brace itself against the influence of outages. [23]


El Salvador

Resiliencia: Capacidad de un ecosistema o de una comunidad de absorber un impacto negativo o de recuperarse una vez haya sido afectada por un fenómeno. [24]


Finland

Resilienssi: yksilöiden ja yhteisöjen kyky ylläpitää toimintakykyä muuttuvissa olosuhteissa sekä valmius kohdata häiriöitä ja kriisejä ja palautua niistä.

Resilience is the capability of individuals or communities to maintain working order in changing conditions, and the readiness to meet incidents and crises and recover from them. -unofficial translation- [25]


France

La résilience se définit comme la volonté et la capacité d’un pays, de la société et des pouvoirs publics à résister aux conséquences d’une agression ou d’une catastrophe majeures, puis à rétablir rapidement leur capacité de fonctionner normalement, ou à tout le moins dans un mode socialement acceptable. Elle concerne non seulement les pouvoirs publics, mais encore les acteurs économiques et la société civile tout entire. [26]

A non-official translation is the following:

Resilience is defined as the will and ability of a country, society and government to withstand the consequences of an attack or a major disaster, and then to quickly restore their ability to function normally, or at least in a socially acceptable way. It concerns not only the government but also the business community and the whole civil society.

Résilience: En informatique, capacité d’un système d’information à résister à une panne ou à une cyberattaque et à revenir à son état initial après l’incident. [27]

Résilience (eco/environnement): Capacité d’un écosystème à résister et à survivre à des altérations ou à des perturbations affectant sa structure ou son fonctionnement, et à trouver, à terme, un nouvel équilibre. [28]


Germany

Resilience is a system's ability to deal with changes. Resilience means resistance to disruptions of any kind, adaptability to new conditions and a flexible response to changes with the aim of maintaining the system, for example a company or a process. [29]


Guatemala

Resiliencia: Capacidad de un material, mecanismo o sistema para recuperar su estado inicial cuando ha cesado la perturbación a la que había estado sometido. Fuente: Real Academia Española [30]

Resiliencia: Capacidad de un sistema, comunidad o sociedad expuestos a una amenaza para resistir, absorber, adaptarse y recuperarse de sus efectos de manera oportuna y eficaz, incluye la preservación y la restauración de sus estructuras y funciones básicas. [31]


Ireland

Resilience describes the inherent capacity of communities, services and infrastructure to withstand the consequences of an incident, and to recover/restore normality. [32]

Resilience is a capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from significant multi-hazard threats with minimum damage to social well-being, the economy, and the environment. [33]


Israel

Resilience is capacity to handle attacks in order to regain overall normal functioning of the organization. [34]


Italy

Resilienza: Nell'ambito della protezione civile si intende la capacità di una comunità di affrontare gli eventi calamitosi, di superarli e di uscirne rafforzata o addirittura trasformata. [35]

Resilienza - Capacità umana di affrontare gli avvenimenti dolorosi e rinascere dalle situazioni dolorose. Ogni persona possiede la resilienza: non è solo la capacità di resistere al dramma, non solo la sopravvivenza a tutti i costi, ma anche la capacità di usare l'esperienza del contatto con l'avvenimento traumatico per costruire il futuro. [36]


Jamaica

Resilience: The ability of a social or ecologicalsystem to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic structure and ways offunctioning, the capacity for self-organization, and the capacity to adapt to stress and change. [37]


(States of) Jersey

Resilience: the capacity of a social-ecological system to cope with a hazardous event or disturbance, responding or reorganizing in ways that maintain its essential function, identity, and structure, while also maintaining the capacity for adaptation, learning, and transformation. [38]


Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Resilience: the ability to continue to: (i) operate under adverse conditions or stress, even if in a degraded or debilitated state, while maintaining essential operational capabilities; and (ii) recover to an effective operational posture in a time frame consistent with mission needs. [39]


Kiribati

Neneaki-n-tatauraoi: Te katauraoi nakoia aomata n ike tatabemaniia,utu,rabwata ao botaki ake a na kona ni kauarerekea te rotaki man bibitakin kanoan te bong. [40]

Resiliance: The elements of an individual, family, community, society or ecosystem that makes them less vulnerable to climate change.


Netherlands

Weerbaarheid is de eigenschap van objecten om ongevoelig te zijn voor, aanpasbaar te zijn aan of snel te herstellen van ongunstige omstandigheden.
(Resilience is the property of objects to be insensitive for, adaptable to, or to be able to recover fast from unfavorable circumstances). [41]

(Cyber) weerbaarheid is het vermogen van personen, organisaties of samenlevingen om weerstand te bieden aan negatieve invloeden op de beschikbaarheid, vertrouwelijkheid en/of integriteit van (informatie)systemen en digitale informatie.
(Cyber) resilience is the ability of people, organisations or societies to resist negative influences on the availability, confidentiality and/or integrity of (information) systems and digital information) [42]


Peru

Resiliencia: La habilidad de un sistema y sus componentes para anticipar, absorber, adaptarse o recuperarse de los efectos de un fenómeno peligroso, de forma oportuna y eficiente, incluso velando por la conservación, restauración o mejora de sus estructuras y funciones básicas esenciales. [43]


Philippines

Resilience:
(a) The ability to quickly adapt and recover from any known or unknown changes to the environment through holistic implementation of risk management, contingency, and continuity planning;
(b)The ability to continue to: (i) operate under adverse conditions or stress, even if in a degraded or debilitated state, while maintaining essential operational capabilities; and (ii) recover to an effective operational posture in a time frame consistent with mission needs. [44]


Portugal

[Definição]Resiliência: capacidade de adaptação rápida e/ou recuperação de qualquer tipo de disrupção, para permitir a continuidade das operações a um nível aceitável tendo por base os objetivos de missão e o impacto na segurança. [45]


Qatar

The ability to prepare for, adapt to, withstand, and rapidly recover from disruptions resulting from deliberate attacks, accidents, or naturally occurring threats or incidents. [46]

المرونة وهي القدرة ع ى الاستعداد والتكيف مع الظروف المتغ يرة والصمود والتعا في ´ بسرعة من الاضطرابات ال ت ي تنتج عن الهجمات أو الحوادث المتعمدة أو تلك ال ت ي قد تحدث أ لسباب طبيعية. [47]


Republic of Korea

Resilience(복원력) 사회적 또는 생태학적 시스템이 초기와 같은 기본 구조나 기능 하는 방법을 가르킨다. 자기조직화의 능력, 스트레스 및 변화를 수용하는 능력을 유지하도록 교란을 흡수할 수 있는 능력을 말한다. [48]


Republic of Trinidad & Tobago

The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions. [49]


Saint Lucia

Resilience: The capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase its capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures (from: ISDR). [50]


Senegal

Résilience: la capacité d’un système d’information à résister à une panne ou à une cyberattaque et à revenir à son état initial après l’incident. [51]


Singapore

The ability of an organization to absorb the impact due to a risk occurrence and to continue to operate in such a way as to achieve its minimum business continuity objective. [52]

Resilience: The measure of a system’s ability to recover from a disruption or disturbance. [53]


South Africa

Resilience is the ability of a system or community to survive disruption and to anticipate, adapt, and flourish in the face of change. [54]

"Resilience" means the ability of an infrastructure to mitigate, absorb or withstand any damage, disruption, disturbance or interference to a critical infrastructure in order to maintain the functionality, integrity and structural capacity of a critical infrastructure. [55]


Switzerland

Resilienz beschreibt die Fähigkeit eines Systems, einer Organisation oder einer Gesellschaft, intern oder extern verursachten Störungen zu widerstehen und die Funktionsfähigkeit möglichst zu erhalten respective wieder zu erlangen. [56]

Die Resilienz setzt sich aus vier Bestandteilen zusammen:

  1. Die Robustheit der Systeme (z. B. kritische Infrastrukturen, Staat, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft) an sich;
  2. Die Verfügbarkeit von Redundanzen;
  3. Die Fähigkeit, wirksame Hilfsmassnahmen zu mobilisieren;
  4. Die Schnelligkeit und Effizienz der Hilfsmassnahmen.


La résilience décrit la capacité d’un système, d’une organisation ou d’une société, à surmonter des dysfonctionnements d’origine interne ou externe et à maintenir autant que possible ou à retrouver toute sa fonctionnalité. [57]

La résilience se compose de quatre éléments:

  1. la robustesse des systèmes (p. ex. infrastructures critiques, Etat, économie et société);
  2. les redondances disponibles;
  3. la capacité à mobiliser des mesures auxiliaires efficaces;
  4. la rapidité et l’efficience des mesures auxiliaires.


La resilienza consiste nella capacità di un sistema, di un’organizzazione o di una società di resistere a perturbazioni interne o esterne e di mantenere o ripristinare il funzionamento. [58]

La resilienza si compone di quattro elementi:

  1. la robustezza dei sistemi (per es. infrastrutture critiche, Stato, economia e società);
  2. la disponibilità di ridondanze;
  3. la capacità di mobilitare misure di sostegno efficaci;
  4. la rapidità e l’efficienza delle misure di sostegno.



United Kingdom (UK)

Resilience is the ability of the community, services, area or infrastructure to detect, prevent, and, if necessary to withstand, handle and recover from disruptive challenges. [59]


Resilience is the ability of assets, networks and systems to anticipate, absorb, adapt to and / or rapidly recover from a disruptive event. [60]


Resilience is the ability of a social or ecological system to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic ways of functioning, and a capacity to adapt to stress and change. [61]


Resilience – The ability of a system to recover from the effect of an extreme load that may have caused harm. [62]


United States

DHS
The ability to prepare for and adapt to changing conditions and withstand and recover rapidly from disruptions; includes the ability to withstand and recover from deliberate attacks, accidents, or naturally occurring threats or incidents. [63]

Infrastructure resilience is the ability to reduce the magnitude and/or duration of disruptive events. [64]

The effectiveness of a resilient infrastructure or enterprise depends upon its ability to anticipate, absorb, adapt to, and/or rapidly recover from a potentially disruptive event.

Older definitions:

Ability to resist, absorb, recover from or successfully adapt to adversity or a change in conditions. [65]


Ability to reduce the magnitude and/or duration of disruptive events. [66]

NIST
The ability to quickly adapt and recover from any known or unknown changes to the environment through holistic implementation of risk management, contingency, and continuity planning. (from: NIST SP 800-34 Rev 1) [67]

The ability to continue to: (i) operate under adverse conditions or stress, even if in a degraded or debilitated state, while maintaining essential operational capabilities; and (ii) recover to an effective operational posture in a time frame consistent with mission needs. (from: NIST SP 800-137) [67]

Information System Resilience: The ability of an information system to continue to: (i) operate under adverse conditions or stress, even if in a degraded or debilitated state, while maintaining essential operational capabilities; and (ii) recover to an effective operational posture in a time frame consistent with mission needs. (from: NIST SP 800-53 Rev 4) [67]


Other Definitions

Ontario (Canada)

Resilience is the ability to resist, absorb, accommodate and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner. [68]

Résilience: capacité de résister aux effets d’un danger, de les absorber, de s’y adapter et de se rétablir, efficacement et en temps opportun. [68]

Rockefeller Foundation

Resilience is the capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses and systems to survive, adapt, and thrive no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks the experience. [69]
The Rockefeller Foundation 100 Resilient Cities (100RC) initiative promotes seven qualities of resilience [70]:
  1. Reflective
  2. Resourceful
  3. Inclusive
  4. Integrated
  5. Robust
  6. Redundant
  7. Flexible


Scotland

The ability of a social or ecological system to absorb disturbances while retaining the same basic structure and ways of functioning, the capacity for self-organisation, and the capacity to adapt to stress and change. [71]


Academic

Resilience is the ability [of a system] to cope with change. [72]
[Dutch] Veerkracht is het vermogen [van een systeem] om te gaan met veranderingen.

Infrastructural resilience: By this we refer to the resilience of critical infrastructure in the face of unexpected / uncontrollable events and circumstances. This might include ability to withstand climate change variations, flooding events or even terrorist actions. [73]


Resilience – Refers to three conditions that enable social or ecological systems to bounce back after a shock. [74]
The conditions are: ability to self-organize, ability to buffer disturbance and capacity for learning and adapting.

See also

Notes

  1. European Climate Adaptation Platform (CLIMATE-ADAPT) Glossary
  2. http://improverproject.eu/
  3. 2009 UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction, United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), Geneva, Switzerland, May 2009.
  4. 2009 UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction, United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), Geneva, Switzerland, May 2009.
  5. UNISDR glossary
  6. UNISDR glossary
  7. UNISDR glossary
  8. UNISDR glossary
  9. UNISDR glossary in Bahasa
  10. UNISDR glossary in Malay
  11. UNISDR glossary in Tagalog
  12. Mach, K.J., S. Planton and C. von Stechow (eds.). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Annex II: Glossary. [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 117-130.
  13. Industrial Internet Consortium: Industrial Internet of Things Volume G4: Security Framework
  14. Glosario Comites Emergencia Argentina
  15. Australia AS NZS 5050 (2010)
  16. RADNA VERZIJA OSOBLJA KOMISIJE: Procjena rizika i mapiranje smernice za upravljanje katastrofama
  17. GUIA DE REFERÊNCIA PARA A SEGURANÇA DAS INFRAESTRUTURAS CRÍTICAS DA INFORMAÇÃO Versão 01 (Nov. 2010)/ Instrução Normativa Nº 1, de 13 de junho de 2008. Gabinete de Segurança Institucional da Presidência da República.
  18. An Emergency Management Framework for Canada (Second Edition)
  19. Vocabulaire de la gestion des urgencies/Emergency Management Emergency Management Vocabulary 281 (2012)
  20. Avaliação das Necessidades Pós- Desastre (PDNA) ERUPÇÃO VULCÂNICA NO FOGO 2014-2015, Cape Verde
  21. Conpes 3854 POLÍTICA NACIONAL DE SEGURIDAD DIGITAL (2016)
  22. Výkladový slovník kybernetické bezpečnosti (2013)
  23. Výkladový slovník kybernetické bezpečnosti (2013)
  24. Glosario de Riesgo, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, El Salvador
  25. Vocabulary of Comprehensive Security. Helsinki (TSK 47) (2014)
  26. Défense et Sécurité nationale, Le livre Blanc. ODILE JACOB/LA DOCUMENTATION FRANÇAISE, juin 2008. ISBN : 978-2-7381-2185-1
  27. ANSSI Glossaire
  28. Vocabulaire de l’environnement, Commission spécialisée de terminologie et de néologie dans le domaine de l’environnement, France (2012)
  29. UP KRITIS, BSI, 2014
  30. La Estrategia Nacional de Seguridad Cibernética (June 2018)
  31. Plan Estratégico de Seguridad de la Nación 2016-2020, Guatemala
  32. A FRAMEWORK FOR MAJOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT (APPENDICES)
  33. Building Resilience to Climate Change, Department of the Environment,Community and Local Government (2012)
  34. The Israeli Odyssey toward its National Cyber Security Strategy, Dmitry (Dima) Adamsky (2017)
  35. Dipartimento della Protezione Civile Glossario
  36. GLOSSARIO DI PROTEZIONE CIVILE Regione Sicilia
  37. Climate Change Policy Framework for Jamaica (2015)
  38. States of Jersey Future-proofing Jersey: Building Resilience for the 21st Century (2015)
  39. Cyber Security Framework Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority Version 1.0 May 2017
  40. Kiribati BI-LINGUAL GLOSSARY OF CLIMATE CHANGE TERMS, Original translations by Dr Temakei Tebano & Etita Teiabauri, 2008
  41. M.H.A. Klaver, B. Verheesen, H.A.M. Luiijf (2013). Intersectorale afhankelijkheden: buitenlandse methoden en mogelijke toepasbaarheid in Nederland, TNO 2013 R11539, The Hague, Netherlands
  42. Cybersecuritybeeld Nederland 2016
  43. Glosario de Términos para la Formulación de Proyectos Ambientales, Peru, 2012 / Fuente: IPCC 2012
  44. DND GLOSSARY OF CYBER SECURITY TERMS (v.4)
  45. Glossário Centro National de Cibersegurança Portugal
  46. QATAR National Cyber Security Strategy (May 2014)
  47. الاستراتيجية الوطنية للأمن السيبراني QATAR NCSS - Arabic version (May 2014)
  48. Climate Change Handbook, Korea (2009)
  49. Comprehensive Disaster Management Policy Framework for Trinidad and Tobago
  50. Disaster Risk Reduction Country Profile for Saint Lucia: August 2012
  51. STRATÉGIE NATIONALE DE CYBERSÉCURITÉ DU SÉNÉGAL (SNC2022)
  52. Singapore Standard SS 540: 2008 on Business Continuity
  53. Foresight: A Glossary, Civil Service College, Singapore
  54. South Africa National Adaptation Strategy - Draft for comments 2016
  55. CIP Bill for Publication 2015
  56. Leitfaden Schutz kritischer Infrastrukturen 2015 / Glossar der Risikobegriffe, Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz BABS, 29.4.2013
  57. Guide pour la protection des infrastructures critiques 2015/Glossaire des risques, Office fédéral de la protection de la population, 29.4.2013
  58. Glossario sui rischi, Ufficio federale della protezione della popolazione UFPP, 29.4.2013
  59. Glossary - Revision to Emergency Preparedness, Cabinet Office (2012)
  60. Cabinet Office, Section A: Introduction, Definitions and Principles of Infrastructure Resilience n.d.
  61. The National Adaptation Programme: Making the country resilient to a changing climate, UK Government (2013)
  62. ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: KEY TERMS, E. Levina and D. Terpak, OECD (2006) - (UKCIP, 2003)
  63. Presidential Policy Directive -- Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience, PPD-21, 2013.
  64. NIAC definition (2010).
  65. DHS Risk Lexicon 2010 Edition, September 2010.
  66. NIAC Critical Infrastructure Resilience Final Report and Recommendations
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 NIST Glossary
  68. 68.0 68.1 Province of Ontario’s Emergency Management Glossary of Terms
  69. 100RC - Rockefeller Foundation
  70. The resilience framework (pdf)
  71. Preparing for a Changing Climate: Second Consultation to Inform Scotland's Climate Change Adaptation Framework
  72. Wieland & Wallenburg (2013), The influence of relational competencies on supply chain resilience: a relational view
  73. Hargrave, J. (2013) “It’s Alive! – Can you imagine the urban building of the fu-ture?”, ARUP Foresight & Innovation, London, January 2013, pp 112.
  74. ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: KEY TERMS, E. Levina and D. Terpak, OECD (2006) - from (Tompkins E. et al. 2005)