Other International Definitions
Note: Risk perception reflects the stakeholder's needs, issues, knowledge, belief and values.
Subjective risk is a social construct and is defined in opposition with the “objective risk” or “real risk”.  It usually refers to the judgment of non-experts (lay people, members of the general public, civil population) since their perception of risk is likely to be different compared to experts.  Risk perception by experts is usually labeled “Risk Assessment”. Experts tend to estimate risk in a more objective analytic and rational way based on scientific and technological knowledge  However, there are studies showing that even experts can commit estimation errors when they cannot rely on consistent data.  However, average citizens are more likely to have more distorted perceptions and to be under a higher influence of cognitive biases and heuristics.
- Illusion of Control
- Optimism Bias
- Psychological Heuristics
- Risk Assessment
- Risk Evaluation
- Risk Tolerance
- Subjective Risk
- Campbell Institute (2014). Risk perception: Theories, strategies and next steps.
- ENISA Risk Glossary
- SUBSECRETARÍA DE PROTECCIÓN CIVIL Y ABORDAJE INTEGRAL DE EMERGENCIAS Y CATÁSTROFES (1/2015)
- GLOSSÁRIO DE DEFESA CIVIL ESTUDOS DE RISCOS E MEDICINA DE DESASTRES, Ministério da Integração Nacional, Brazil
- All Hazards Risk Assessment Methodology Guidelines 2012-2013, Public Safety Canada
- DHS Risk Lexicon 2010 Edition, September 2010
- ISO Guide 73:2009 Risk management -- Vocabulary
- Sjöberg, L. (2000). Factors in risk perception. Risk Analysis, 20, 1-11.
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- Yates, J.F. (1992). Risk-taking behavior. London: John Wiley & Sons
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- Hofer, J. (2016). Report on risk perception. Deliverable D32.1 for Driver Project (http://driver-project.eu/content/report-risk-perception)
- Slovic, P. (1992). Perception of risk: reflections on the psychometric paradigm, in Krimsky, S., & Golding, D. (Eds.), Social Theories of Risk, Praeger, Westport, 117-152.
- Bostrom, A. (1997). Risk perceptions: ‘Experts’ vs. ‘Lay people,’ Duke Environmental Law Policy Forum, 8(101), 101-113.
- Sjöberg, L. (1999). Risk Perception by the Public and by Experts: A Dilemma in Risk Management, Human Ecology Revenue, 6(2), 1-9.
- van der Pligt, J. (1996). Judgement and Decision Making. In R. G. Semin & K. Fiedler, Applied Social Psychology (pp 30-64).