Terrorism

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Definitions

European Definitions

Other International Definitions

NATO

The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence against individuals or property in an attempt to coerce or intimidate governments or societies to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives. [1]

National Definitions

Armenia

Legal definition
(terrorist act) ահաբեկչական գործողություն` ահաբեկչական բնույթի հանցագործության անմիջական կատարում` պայթյունի, հրկիզման, միջուկային պայթուցիկ տարրերի, ռադիոակտիվ, քիմիական, կենսաբանական, պայթուցիկ, թունավորող, ուժեղ ներգործող նյութերի կիրառման կամ դրա սպառնալիքի, տրանսպորտային միջոցների կամ այլ օբյեկտների ոչնչացման, վնասման կամ զավթման, պետական կամ հասարակական գործչի, ազգային, էթնիկական, կրոնական կամ բնակչության այլ խմբերի ներկայացուցչի կյանքի դեմ ոտնձգության, պատանդների վերցման, մարդու առևանգման, տեխնոգեն բնույթի վթարների և աղետների համար պայմաններ ստեղծելու ճանապարհով անորոշ շրջանակի անձանց կյանքին, առողջությանը կամ գույքին վնաս հասցնելու նպատակով վտանգ ստեղծելու կամ այդպիսի վտանգի ստեղծման իրական սպառնալիքի, ցանկացած ձևի և ցանկացած միջոցներով սպառնալիքների տարածման, մարդկային զոհերի, զգալի գույքային վնաս հասցնելու կամ հասարակական վտանգավոր հետևանքներ առաջացնող այլ գործողությունների միջոցով. [2]

Australia

Emergency Management
Terrorism is the calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to attain goals that are political, religious, or ideological in nature. [3]

This can be done through intimidation, coercion, or instilling fear. Terrorism includes a criminal act against persons or property that is intended to influence an audience beyond the immediate victims.

Legal definition
According to the Criminal Code Amendment (Terrorism) Act 2003 (CCA Act), Section 100.
(1) A terrorist act means an action or threat of action where:
(a) the action falls within subsection (2) and does not fall within subsection (3); and
(b) the action is done or the threat is made with the intention of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause; and
(c) the action is done or the threat is made with the intention of: (i) coercing, or influencing by intimidation, the government of the Commonwealth or a State, Territory or foreign country, or of part of a State, Territory or foreign country; or (ii) intimidating the public or a section of the public.

(2) Action falls within this subsection if it:
(a) causes serious harm that is physical harm to a person; or
(b) causes serious damage to property; or
(c) causes a person’s death; or
(d) endangers a person’s life, other than the life of the person taking the action; or
(e) creates a serious risk to the health or safety of the public or a section of the public; or
(f) seriously interferes with, seriously disrupts, or destroys, an electronic system including, but not limited to: (i) an information system; or (ii) a telecommunications system; or (iii) a financial system; or (iv) a system used for the delivery of essential government services; or (v) a system used for, or by, an essential public utility; or (vi) a system used for, or by, a transport system.

(3) Action falls within this subsection if it:
(a) is advocacy, protest, dissent or industrial action; and
(b) is not intended:(i) to cause serious harm that is physical harm to a person; or (ii) to cause a person’s death; or (iii) to endanger the life of a person, other than the person taking the action; or (iv) to create a serious risk to the health or safety of the public or a section of the public.

(4) {...} [4]


A ‘terrorist act’ is an act, or a threat to commit an act, that is done with the intention to coerce or influence the public or any government by intimidation to advance a political, religious or ideological cause, and the act causes:
(a) death, serious harm or endangers a person
(b) serious damage to property,
(c) a serious risk to the health or safety of the public, or
(d) seriously interferes with, disrupts or destroys, critical infrastructure such as a telecommunications or electricity network. [5]


Canada

The definition of "terrorist activity" as set out in section 83.01(1) (a) and (b) of the Criminal Code [6] of Canada. [7]


Costa Rica

Terrorismo: Es la dominación por medio del terror y el control que se busca a partir de actos violentos cuyo fin es infundir miedo. El terrorismo, por lo tanto, busca coaccionar y presionar a los gobiernos o la sociedad en general para imponer sus reclamos y proclamas. [8]


Finland

Terrorism: väkivaltainen kansallisen tai kansainvälisen lain sääntelyn vastainen toiminta tai sillä uhkaaminen, jonka tarkoituksena on levottomuuden ja vakavan pelon synnyttäminen [9]

Terrorismi on poliittisesti motivoitunutta väkivallan käyttämistä tai sillä uhkaamista, jonka tarkoituksena on aiheuttaa vakavaa pelkoa väestön keskuudessa, pakottaa oikeudettomasti jonkin valtion hallitus, viranomainen tai kansainvälinen järjestö tekemään, sietämään tai tekemättä jättämään jotakin, kumota oikeudettomasti jonkin valtion valtiosääntö, muuttaa sitä tai horjuttaa vakavasti valtion oikeusjärjestystä, tai aiheuttaa erityisen suurta vahinkoa valtion tai kansainvälisen järjestön taloudelle tai muille perusrakenteille. [10]

Terrorism is the politically motivated use of violence or the threat of it, with the intention to instill widespread fear among the population, unlawfully force a government, another state authority or international organisation to do or not do something, or to tolerate something, unlawfully overthrow or change s state’s constitution, seriously disrupt the state’s judicial system, cause grave harm to the national economy or to the foundations of society, or seriously damage the economy or other basic structures of an international organisation. [11]


France

Des actes de terrorisme (Article 421, Modifié par LOI n° 2016-819 du 21 juin 2016 - art. 1) Constituent des actes de terrorisme, lorsqu'elles sont intentionnellement en relation avec une entreprise individuelle ou collective ayant pour but de troubler gravement l'ordre public par l'intimidation ou la terreur, les infractions suivantes :
1° Les atteintes volontaires à la vie, les atteintes volontaires à l'intégrité de la personne, l'enlèvement et la séquestration ainsi que le détournement d'aéronef, de navire ou de tout autre moyen de transport, définis par le livre II du présent code ;
2° Les vols, les extorsions, les destructions, dégradations et détériorations, ainsi que les infractions en matière informatique définis par le livre III du présent code ;
3° Les infractions en matière de groupes de combat et de mouvements dissous définies par les articles 431-13 à 431-17 et les infractions définies par les articles 434-6 et 441-2 à 441-5 ;
4° Les infractions en matière d'armes, de produits explosifs ou de matières nucléaires définies par les articles {...} du code de la défense, ainsi que les articles L. 317-7 et L. 317-8 à l'exception des armes de la catégorie D définies par décret en Conseil d'Etat, du code de la sécurité intérieure ;
5° Le recel du produit de l'une des infractions prévues aux 1° à 4° ci-dessus ;
6° Les infractions de blanchiment prévues au chapitre IV du titre II du livre III du présent code ;
7° Les délits d'initié prévus aux articles L. 465-1 à L. 465-3 du code monétaire et financier.[12]


Haiti

Terrorisme: l'utilisation systématique et planifiée de la terreur, par des organisations formées à cet effet, dans le but d'influencer la volonté d'un acteur et le forcer à agir dans le sens des intérêts poursuivis par l'organisation qui entreprend cette activité. [13]


Jamaica

Terrorism is the use of violence or intimidation to coerce a government or civilian population to further political or social objectives. [14]


Morocco

Constituent des actes de terrorisme, lorsqu'elles sont intentionnellement en relation avec une entreprise individuelle ou collective ayant pour but l'atteinte grave à l'ordre public par l'intimidation, la terreur ou la violence, les infractions suivantes :
1) l'atteinte volontaire à la vie des personnes ou à leur intégrité, ou à leurs libertés, l'enlèvement ou la séquestration des personnes ;
2) la contrefaçon ou la falsification des monnaies ou effets de crédit public, des sceaux de l'Etat et des poinçons, timbres et marques, ou le faux ou la falsification visés dans les articles 360, 361 et 362 du présent code ;
3) les destructions, dégradations ou détériorations ;
4) le détournement, la dégradation d'aéronefs ou des navires ou de tout autre moyen de transport, la dégradation des installations de navigation aérienne, maritime et terrestre et la destruction, la dégradation ou la détérioration des moyens de communication ;
5) le vol et l'extorsion des biens ;
6) la fabrication, la détention, le transport, la mise en circulation ou l'utilisation illégale d'armes, d'explosifs ou de munitions ;
7) les infractions relatives aux systèmes de traitement automatisé des données ;
8) le faux ou la falsification en matière de chèque ou de tout autre moyen de paiement visés respectivement par les articles 316 et 331 du code de commerce ;
9) la participation à une association formée ou à une entente établie en vue de la préparation ou de la commission d'un des actes de terrorisme ;
10) le recel sciemment du produit d'une infraction de terrorisme. [15]


Netherlands

Terrorism is defined as threatening, making preparations for or perpetrating, for ideological reasons, acts of serious violence directed at people or other acts intended to cause property damage that could spark social disruption, for the purpose of bringing about social change, creating a climate of fear among the general public, or influencing political decision-making. [16]

Dutch original definition:

Terrorisme is het uit ideologische motieven dreigen met, voorbereiden of plegen van op mensen gericht ernstig geweld, dan wel daden gericht op het aanrichten van maatschappijontwrichtende zaakschade, met als doel maatschappelijke veranderingen te bewerkstelligen, de bevolking ernstige vrees aan te jagen of politieke besluitvorming te beïnvloeden. [17]


Nicaragua

Terrorsimo: Uso calculado de la violencia o amenaza por una potencia ilegitima y no establecida, contra in Estado legitimo y establecido, con el objetivo de alcanzar objetivos políticos, religiosos o ideológicos al practicar la intimidación, la fuerza, o al instaurar un clima de terror. [18]


Panama

(terrorist) Terrorista El término terrorista se refiere a la persona natural que: (i) comete o cometer, actos terroristas por cualquier medio, directa o indirectamente, ilegalmente y deliberadamente; (ii) participa como cómplice en actos terroristas; (iii) organiza o dirige a otros para que cometan actos terroristas; o (iv) contribuye a la comisión de actos terroristas por un grupo de personas que actúa con un propósito común en el que la contribución se hace intencionalmente y con el objeto de llevar adelante el acto terrorista o sabiendo la intención del grupo de cometer un acto terrorista. [19]


Romania

Terorism:
Reprezintă ansamblul de acţiuni şi/sau ameninţări care prezintă pericol public şi afectează securitatea naţională, având următoarele caracteristici: (a) sunt săvârşite, în mod premeditat, de entităţi teroriste, motivate de concepţii şi atitudini extremiste, ostile faţă de alte entităţi, împotriva cărora acţionează prin modalităţi violente şi/sau distructive; (b) au ca scop realizarea unor obiective specifice, de natura politică; (c) vizează factori umani şi/sau factori materiali din cadrul autorităţilor şi instituţiilor publice, populaţiei civile sau al oricărui alt segment aparţinând acestora; (d) produc stări cu un puternic impact psihologic asupra populaţiei, de natură să atragă atenţia asupra scopurilor urmărite. [20]


Slovenia

Terorizem je nezakonita uporaba ali grožnja uporabe sile ali nasilja proti posameznikom ali premoženju, ki ima za cilj prisiliti ali zastraševati vlade ali družbe za doseganje političnih, verskih in ideoloških ciljev. [21]
Terorizem je dejanje, ki ima namen ogroziti ustavno ureditev ali varnost Republike Slovenije, povzročiti eksplozijo ali požar ali drugo splošno nevarno dejanje ali nasilje, ali grožnja z uporabo jedrske snovi ali drugih sredstev za množično pobijanje ljudi, da bi pri ljudeh tako ustvarili občutek negotovosti in prestrašenosti.

United Arab Emirates

Terrorism: Terrorism is the threat or use of action, calculated to create an atmosphere of fear and alarm. [22]
These acts are designed to influence the Government or to intimidate the public or a section of the public, and made for the purpose of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause. This often involves serious violence against a person or serious damage to property. Terrorism can come in many forms, not just a physical attack on life and limb. It can include interference with vital information or communication systems, causing disruption and economic damage.

United Kingdom

Terrorism is defined as the use or threat of action designed to influence the government or an international governmental organisation or to intimidate the public, or a section of the public; made for the purposes of advancing a political, religious, racial or ideological cause; and it involves or causes: serious violence against a person; serious damage to a property; a threat to a person's life; a serious risk to the health and safety of the public; or serious interference with or disruption to an electronic system. [23]


United States

DHS
Premeditated threat or act of violence against noncombatant persons, property, and environmental or economic targets to induce fear, intimidate, coerce, or affect a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political, social, ideological, or religious objectives. [24]

DoD
Terrorism is the unlawful use of violence or threat of violence, often motivated by religious, political, or other ideological beliefs, to instill fear and coerce governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are usually political (source: JP 3-07.2) [25]

Homeland Security Act 2002
Terrorism is an activity that involves an act that is dangerous to human life or potentially destructive of critical infrastructure or key resources; is a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State or other subdivision of the United States; and appears to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population, to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion, or to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping. [26]


Standard Definition

See also

Notes

  1. NATO Glossary AAP-06(2014)
  2. ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆԻ ՀԱՆՐԱՊԵՏՈՒԹՅԱՆ ՕՐԵՆՔԸ Ընդունված է 2005 թվականի մարտի 22-ին ԱՀԱԲԵԿՉՈՒԹՅԱՆ ԴԵՄ ՊԱՅՔԱՐԻ ՄԱՍԻՆ
  3. Australian Emergency Management Glossary, Emergency Management Australia (1998)
  4. CYBER TERRORISM AND AUSTRALIA’S TERRORISM INSURANCE SCHEME PHYSICALLY DESTRUCTIVE CYBER TERRORISM IS A GAP IN CURRENT INSURANCE COVERAGE
  5. Terrorist act offences / Division 101 of the Criminal Code Act 1995 (the Criminal Code)
  6. Criminal Code of Canada
  7. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives Resilience Strategy for Canada
  8. Estrategia Nacional de Ciberseguridad de Costa Rica (2017)
  9. Vocabulary of Comprehensive Security. Helsinki (TSK 47) (2014)
  10. Yhteikunnan Turvallisuusstrategia, Valtioneuvoston periaatepäätös 16.12.2010
  11. Security Strategy for Society, Government Resolution 16.12.2010
  12. Code penal, Partie législative, Livre IV : Des crimes et délits contre la nation, l'Etat et la paix publique, Titre II : Du terrorisme
  13. [http://[www.md.gouv.ht/Livre_Blanc.pdf LIVRE BLANC SUR LA SÉCURITÉ ET LA DÉFENSE NATIONALE POUR LE DÉVELOPPEMENT ÉCONOMIQUE ET SOCIAL DURABLE D’HAÏTI, Juin 2015]
  14. Jamaica's National Cyber Security Strategy
  15. Code Penal Royaume du Maroc
  16. What is terrorism?, NCTV, The Hague, Netherlands
  17. Wat is terrorisme?, NCTV, The Hague, Nederland
  18. Guía Práctica ráctica ráctica de Prevención, revención, revención, Detección y Detección y etección y Represión epresión epresión del Financiamiento inanciamiento inanciamiento del Terrorismo errorismo
  19. ESTÁNDARES INTERNACIONALES SOBRE LA LUCHA CONTRA EL LAVADO DE ACTIVOS, EL FINANCIAMIENTO DEL TERRORISMO Y DE LA PROLIFERACIÓN
  20. GLOSAR de termeni din domeniul ordinii şi siguranţei publice, MINISTERUL ADMINISTRAŢIEI ŞI INTERNELOR DIRECŢIA GENERALĂ ORGANIZARE, PLANIFICARE MISIUNI ŞI RESURSE
  21. Vojaška doktrina, Slovenia, 2006
  22. Abu Dhabi Safety and Security Planning Manual
  23. Terrorism Act 2000. UK Legislation, London (UK)
  24. DHS Risk Lexicon 2010 Edition, September 2010
  25. Joint Publication 1-02: Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (2016)
  26. National Incident Management Plan (core)